Рубка, резка металла — основные методы и инструменты

Современный уровень развития технологий уже достаточно давно превратил фантастику в настоящую реальность. То, что раньше можно было прочитать в книгах, сейчас используется практически повсеместно. Это касается достаточно большого количества производственных процессов, в том числе такого, как рубка металла, резка металла.

Особенности процесса резки металла

Резка металла представляет собой отделение некоторых элементов от листового, сортового или литого металла. На данный момент можно выделить такие виды резки, как:

  •  механическая – посредством пилы, ножниц или резцов;
  •  ударная – при помощи рубки;
  •  термическая резка, осуществляемая посредством нагрева;
  • ручная, производимая в быту, как правило, не представляющая каких-либо сложностей.

Резка металла может быть разной также по форме и характеру. Здесь можно отметить разделительную резку, то есть разделение материала на несколько частей. Есть резка поверхностная, например, это может быть вырезка отверстий в детали. Стоит отметить, что ручная резка осуществляется такими инструментами, как болгарка или специальные шлицевые ножницы. Данный метод не заслуживает особого внимания, так как считается малоэффективным, потому используется только в том случае, если необходимо провести работы в небольшом объеме. Лучше остановиться на иных популярных видах резки, таких как гильотинная рубка, плазменная, гидравлическая, лазерная и так далее. Ручная резка никак не сравнится ни с одним из данных методов. Как правило, каждый из методов обладает своими недостатками и преимуществами. Некоторые методы ограничены по толщине металла, есть такие которые обеспечивают какой-то определенный уровень качества получаемой в результате поверхности.

В настоящее время такое приспособление, как гильотина используется для качественно резки металла. В основе подобного метода лежит применение разных механических ножей или ножниц для металла. Суть такого процесса, как рубка, прежде всего, заключается в том, что начинается процесс с того, что мастер помещает лист металла на рабочую поверхность станка и закрепляет его посредством применения прижимной балки. После этого устанавливается нож и производится непосредственно сама рубка. Использование такого метода, как гильотина, в результате дает идеально ровный край, который не имеет зазубрин, заусениц и каких-то иных лишних кромок. Еще одним преимуществом применения при резке металла такого устройства, как гильотина, является полное отсутствие кривизны. Это основано на том, что процесс отрезания осуществляется лезвием строго по всей ширине материала.

В настоящее время существует четыре основных вида такого устройства, как гильотина – ручная, пневматическая, гидравлическая и электромеханическая. Их объединяет похожий принцип действия, но есть некоторые отличия. Станки могут быть предназначены для осуществления такого процесса, как рубка по ширине и по длине.

Практически во всех вариантах используется электроника, которая обеспечивает высокие показатели точности.
Стоит обратить внимание, что рубка металла таким устройством, как гильотина идеально подходит для таких процессов, которые связаны с заготовкой. Есть некоторые моменты, которые при осуществлении данного метода важно знать и соблюдать. Существует некоторое ограничение по толщине металла, по его типу, например, гидравлическая гильотина может произвести обработку металла, осуществить такой процесс, как рубка материала, толщина которого не превышает 6 мм. Точность полос зависит от квалификации оператора, а также гильотина не позволяет осуществить фигурную резку.

Основные виды разрезания металла

Большой популярностью в настоящее время пользуется ленточно-пильная резка, которая популярна по причине относительно невысокой себестоимости процесса, простотой в процессе обслуживания, а также присутствует приемлемая производительность. В качестве режущего приспособления применяется ленточная пила, которая натянута на шкивах.

Газокислородная резка пользуется популярностью по причине высоких показателей производительности. Суть процесса основана на горении металла. Как только материал нагревается до необходимой температуры, осуществляется резка потоком кислорода. Для подобного метода подходят далеко не все виды металла, в частности алюминий, так как при нагревании материал становится мягким, не предназначенным для резки.
Используется также метод плазменной резки, который осуществляется при помощи нагревания того места, где планируется произвести резку. На данный момент плазменная резка металла считается самым распространенным методом, так как не требует создания особых условий, вполне достаточно наличия воздуха и электрической энергии.

Одним из передовых методов является лазерная резка металла. Посредством применения при резке лазерного луча есть возможность разрезать металл, толщина которого составляет примерно 20 мм., но самый оптимальный вариант достигается при работе с материалом, толщина которого равна 6 мм.

Особого внимания заслуживает гидроабразивная резка, которая представляет собой прогрессивную и инновационную технологию. Данный способ в состоянии поразить, так как резка материала производится посредством струи воды, причем таким образом можно разрезать сталь, толщина которой составляет 300 мм! Подобная технология имеет одно большое преимущество – струя воды, как правило, тонкая как волос, она создает значительно меньшие потери материала при сравнении с некоторыми традиционными процессами.

Заключение

Подводя итоги можно отметить, что вышеперечисленные методы используются на практике практически всегда и везде. Но данная отрасль постоянно развивается, разрабатываются все более новые методы. В настоящее время проводятся эксперименты с резкой металла посредством электромагнитного импульса, ультразвука и так далее. Есть вероятность того, что через какое-то время будет разработан такой метод, который будет обладать высокими показателями производительности и доступной стоимостью самого процесса.

Источник: Монтажник, изготовление металлоконструкций

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Колесо Сира – один из самых эффектных номеров в творчестве Цирка дю Солей. Заказать или просто купить колесо Сира Вы можете в студии Кураж: http://kurazh.org/cyr-wheel

Колесо Сира, также известное как Cyr wheel, roue Cyr или просто колесо, в 1990-х годах использовался как цирковой реквизит акробатов. Но популярным оно стало благодаря Даниэлю Сиру. В 2003 году он показал номер с первым цирковым колесом Сира на Международном фестивале «Цирк будущего», где выиграл серебряную медаль. Интересно, что Даниэль утверждает, что создал его без какой-либо осведомлённости о предыдущих подобных цирковых колёсах.

Все акробатические номера исполняются на вращающемся колесе. Сам цирковой инструмент представляет собой большой металлический обруч в рост человека. Артист держится за колесо руками и ногами, массой тела раскручивает обруч и пребывая внутри обруча, выполняет различные трюки.

Несмотря на кажущуюся простоту, номер очень сложный и динамичный.

Колесо Сира использовалось в таких шоу, как Цирк дю Солей и Цирк Элуаз,а также в опере «Аида» Мариинского театра СПб.

Подготовка статьи, производитель колеса Сира, Студия реквизита Кураж.

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